URBAN ARCHAEOLOGY IN APULUM


Understanding problems concerning the cultural heritage as constituent part of social life, is connected to the importance of patrimony as defining element of own ethno-cultural identity, in this case, knowing and respecting local history of the city since its beginnings.

Alba Iulia represents for historians and archaeologists, the ancient Apulum, the most important social-economic centre of Roman Dacia and one of the vastest archaeological sites from the Roman Empire. The existence of the two Roman cities: Colonia Aurelia Apulensis and Municipium Septimium Apulense, of the Praetorium Consularis-the residence of three Dacias’ governor and of the Roman fort of the XIIth Legion Gemina, imposed the necessity of developing and modernizing the reasearch and archaeological prelucration methods but also stimulating the process of recuperating the vestiges mainly within the rescue archaeological researches.

The development and urbanistic evolution of Alba Iulia city, the multiplication and extention of the constructible area but also the constructive stimulation determined the raise in number of the rescue archaeological reserches or, in other words – of the urban archaeology’s impact.

The legislative basis of this type of research start from ratifying The European Convention on the protection of the arheologic heritage (revised) signed in La Valetta on 16 January 1992 and adopted by the Romania’s Parliament by the Law no. 150 / 24.07.1997. Article 9 of this Convention stipulates the necessity of educational actions with a view to rousing and developing an awareness in public opinion of the value of the archaeological heritage for understanding the past and of the threats to this heritage. Also it is underlined the promotion of public access to important elements of its archaeological heritage, by encouraging the display to the public of suitable selections of archaeological objects.

According to Ordinance no. 43 from 30.01.2000 regarding the protection of archaeological patrimony and declaring some archaeological sites as area of national interest, the rescue archaeological researches compared to the systematic ones, are determined by the construction, modification, extention or repair works regarding the public roads, technical and urbanistic endowments, excavations, quarrying, the construction of road network, drillings as well as other works that affect the surface of the soil and subsoil in the areas with marked archaeologic heritage, indifferently whether they are performed in the intravillage localities and indefferent to the property form of the terrain; also these researches may be undertaken in the areas with known and researched archaeological heritage as well as those which are determined by the partial restoration works of the historical monuments.

The rescue archaeological researches were intended to discharge the archaeological load, procedure by which it is confirmed whether a terrain in which archaeological patrimony was evidenced, may be restored to current human activities (Ordinance no. 43/30.01. 2000 revised and republished, The Order of the Ministry of Culture and Cults no. 2518/04.09.2007).

The most important aspect regarding the protection of national archaeological heritage is the fact that the Roman site Apulum was declared area of national interest, area of priority archaeological interest, regime instituted on a territory that includes the archaeological sites whose archaeological research, protection and exploitation is of exceptional importance for the national history and culture (The Order of the Ministry of Culture and Cults no. 2483/12.12. 2006, The Order of the Ministry of Culture and Cults no. 2103/23.02.2007). Also the two ancient urban centres Apulum I and Apulum II, as well as The Roman Fort of the XIIIth Legion Gemina are inscribed in the List of Historical Monuments in A category.

In this context there was imposed the necessity of familiarizing the audience with the local archaeological realities with the purpose of becoming aware of the importance of saving the archaeological vestiges by rescue researches. The main argument is the impact produced by the carrying out of the rescue archaeological researches in the social mentality and the issues on reception of the protection and recuperation standards of the archaeological heritage.

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