APVLVM (MUNICIPIUM SEPTIMIUM APULENSE) – St. Francis de Paola Raveline Archaeological Project. Southern area of the civil settlement belonging to the XIIIth Legion Gemina’s camp, autumn 2010.

Raveline St. Francis of Paola is located in the south-eastern area of the Vauban citadel (Alba Iulia, Romania) between the bastions of Eugene of Savoy (Bastion Bethlen) and St. Stephen (Steinville) 135 m south from the porta principalis dextra of XIII th Legion Gemina’s camp, occupying an area of about 8346 sqm.

the researched area

Alba Carolina – The Vauban Fortress 1715-1738 (Southern Route )

Apulum urban evolution presents a unique appearance and development of two Roman centers. The first city (Apulum I), municipium Aurelium Apulense, was founded during Marcus Aurelius (after 160 AD) and was granted the status of a colonia (colonia Aurelia Apulensis) under Commodus. (180-192 AD.) The second city (Apulum II) appeared under Septimius Severus (193-211 AD) – municipium Septimium Apulense which coexisted with the first city.

MUNICIPIUM SEPTIMIUM APULENSE was located in the southern part of the camp. If municipium Aurelium Apulense is outside a leuga (2.2 km), during Septimius Severus, this rule change, transforming a part of the XIIIth Legion Gemina canabae in municipium showing his gratitude for the Danubian legions who helped him.

plan of the XIIIth Legion Gemina’s camp, municipium Septimium Apulense and Praetorium Consularis, after A. Diaconescu, I. Piso, 1993.

Camp Legion XIIIth Gemina and the civil settlement (canabae) are placed on the second terrace of the Mures River. The camp dating from the IInd – IIIrd century AD, was built after the conquest of the province Dacia during Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (after 106 AD). From Hadrianus (117-138 AD) and continuing with Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD) was rebuilt in stone (opus quadratum technique), XIIIth Gemina Legion remaining in camp until leaving the province.

the southern gate (porta principalis dextra) of the XIIIth Legion Gemina’s camp (restoration).

The stratigraphy of St. Francis de Paola raveline is characterized by the presence of several levels of habitation and planning. The oldest archaeological materials are from early Bronze Age period. This level is followed by Roman habitation (IInd-IIIrd centuries A.D.) in the southern area of the camp legion XIII Gemina. Last phase of Roman habitation is superimposed and partially affected by an early medieval level (Xth-XIIth). Current form and specific arrangements of the raveline date from the eighteenth century, when the Vauban fortification was built along with its specific elements.

view of the St. Francis de Paola Raveline 2009

the St. Francis de Paola site after 2010 campaign.

The first campaign of systematic archaeological research at this point began in autumn 2009 and continued in 2010, by investigating the NNW side of the raveline. Technical organization of the excavation was reported to the final objectives of the research, namely the restoration and preservation in situ of the remains. The main archaeological complex is a Roman building whose walls have been discovered at -0.40 to – 0.60 m depth, after removing a substantial layer of tegulae and Roman bricks belonging to the collapsed roof. It was discovered the SSV side of the building and several rooms.

The central room is larger and the brick foundations of two rectangular pillars (0.50 x 0.50 x 0.30 m and 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.35 m) were found inside.

Walls are partial elevations and were affected in some places by the destruction of the Roman period or medieval and modern pits. Their construction technique is opus mixtum, with bounding courses of limestone blocks and green sandstone followed by bricks. One of the walls retains traces of painted polychrome plaster.

roman wall elevation – opus mixtum

painted wall plaster

A paving with large plates of greenish sandstone was discovered outside the Roman building with two columns collapsed aside.

PAVEMENTS

opus signinum (cocciopesto pavement)

terracotta tesserae

remains of the hypocaustum

ON SITE


ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

roman coins

earrings

roman brooch – swastika type (first half of the IIIrd century AD)

roman millstone




APVLVM (MUNICIPIUM SEPTIMIUM APULENSE) – St. Francis de Paola Raveline Archaeological Project. Southern area of the civil settlement belonging to the XIIIth Legion Gemina’s camp, autumn 2009.

Apvlvm – Alba Carolina Citadel (St. Francis de Paola Raveline) archaeological research programme aims to highlight the archaeological and historical potential of the area around the camp legion XIII Gemina, given that here were no extensive archaeological investigations to restore and preserve the remains of the Roman period. Continue reading

ROMAN NECROPOLIS – Dealul Furcilor 2008 (rescue excavation on 64 Viilor St., Alba Iulia)

The rescue archaeological excavation was carried out in Alba Iulia, 64, Viilor Street, on the surface destined for a warehouse building.
The investigated area is situated in the eastern part of the Roman necropolis from Dealul Furcilor, on the slope which descends from the first terrace of the Mureş River. The respective terrain lies also at the northern end of the Partoş district and it represents the closest explored part of the cemetery to the Roman town Colonia Aurelia Apulensis.
There were discovered and recorded 18 Roman graves: 13 cremation graves (6 of them were bustum type and 7 ustrinum type), 4 inhumation graves in brick sarcophagi  and a cenotaph. These Roman graves belong to the same burial horizon dated to the 2nd – 3rd centuries A.D., on the basis of the funerary inventory.

© Cronica Cercetărilor Arheologice din România, Campania 2008 – VALACHICA XXI-XXII, nr.113.

inhumation graves in brick sarcophagi (IIIrd century A.D.)remains of the caligae – the iron hobnails in situ.

cremation graves (busta)

cremation grave (ustrina) with inventory (IInd century A.D.)

APVLVM I – Colonia Aurelia Apvlensis 2008 (rescue excavation on 6 Gemenilor St., Partos district, Alba Iulia )

ARCHAEOLOGICAL PLAN OF THE BUILDING (IIIrd century A.D.)



GROUP OF 9 SMALL PITCHERS DISCOVERED IN SITU.

The rescue archaeological research was carried out in Alba Iulia, Partos district, 6, Gemenilor Street, with the purpose of discharging the archaeological load of the surface destined to build a house. The researched area is situated in the northern part of the Partos district.

There were discovered the traces of the first Roman inhabitation dating from the II nd century A.D. and a large warehouse build on pillars dating from the first half of the IIIrd century A.D. reet, with the purpose of discharging the archaeological load of the surface destined to build a house. The researched area is situated in the northern part of the Partos district.

There were discovered the traces of the first Roman inhabitation dating from the II nd century A.D. and a large warehouse build on pillars dating from the first half of the IIIrd century A.D.

© Cronica Cercetărilor Arheologice din România, Campania 2008 – VALACHICA XXI-XXII, nr.110.

APVLVM I – Colonia Aurelia Apvlensis 2007 (rescue excavation on Gemenilor St., Partos district, Alba Iulia )

WALL FOUNDATIONS OF THE ROMAN BUILDING (IIIrd century A.D.)

The rescue archaeological research was carried out with the purpose of discharging the archaeological load of the surface destined for the construction of a house.

There have been discovered two Roman buildings CI and CII  (dating in the second half of the IInd century and the IIIrd century A.D.), and the stratigraphic traces of a wooden structure represented by a consistent burning layer.

© Discover Urban Archaeology! Apvlvm 2007, Exhibition Catalogue, Alba iulia 2008.

APVLVM I – Colonia Aurelia Apvlensis 2007 (rescue excavation on 104G Regimentul V Vanatori St., Partos district, Alba Iulia )

WALL FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDING B ( second half of the IInd century A.D. ) – BRICK PAVEMENT OF BUILDING C (IIIrd century A.D.)

The archaeological rescue excavation was carried out with the purpose of discharging the archaeological load of the surface destined to build a shop. The terrain is in the central area of Partos district.

The rescue archaeological excavation carried out in this area of the Roman site Apulum I, evidenced important aspects concerning the succession of the inhabitation phases corresponding to its urbanistic and historical evolution. The intensity of the inhabitation is also given by the reporting to the main road, cardo maximus, nearby which there were the researched buildings.

There have been discovered traces of three Roman buildings (insulae) : building A chronologically dating between the beginning and middle of the IInd century A.D., building B, dating between the middle and end of the IInd century A.D., building C dates from the end of the IInd century-the first half of the IIIrd century A.D. The construction technique especially the elements of relative chronology make the connection between these inhabiting phases and the stages of urbanistic development, from the status of vicus of Colonia Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, in the first phase, that of Municipium Aurelium Apulense after 160 A. D for the second phase, and, finally, the important status of Colonia Aurelia Apulensis received under Commodus ( 180 – 192 A.D.) corresponding to the third phase dated between the end of the IInd century-the third quarter of the IIIrd century A.D.

© Discover Urban Archaeology! Apvlvm 2007, Exhibition Catalogue, Alba Iulia 2008